After several different attempts at wall following algorithms and a lot of tweaking, I’ve finally settled on a basic algorithm that mostly works and allows the OpenADR navigation unit to roughly follow a wall.  The test run is below:

### Algorithm

I used a very basic subsumption architecture as the basis for my wall following algorithm.  This just means that the robot has a list of behaviors that in performs.  Each behavior is triggered by a condition with the conditions being prioritized.  Using my own algorithm as an example, the triggers and behaviors of the robot are listed below:

• A wall closer than 10cm in front triggers the robot to turn left until the wall is on the right.
• If the front-right sensor is closer to the wall than the right sensor, the robot is angled towards the wall and so turns left.
• If the robot is closer than the desired distance from the wall, it turns left slightly to move further away.
• If the robot is further than the desired distance from the wall, it turns right slightly to move closer.
• Otherwise it just travels straight.

The robot goes through each of these conditions sequentially, and if a certain condition is met the robot performs the triggered action and then skips the rest and doesn’t bother checking the rest of the conditions.  As displayed in the test run video this method mostly works but certainly has room for improvement.

### Source

 #include #include #define HALF_SPEED 127 #define FULL_SPEED 255 #define NUM_DISTANCE_SENSORS 5 #define DEG_180 0 #define DEG_135 1 #define DEG_90 2 #define DEG_45 3 #define DEG_0 4 #define TARGET_DISTANCE 6 #define TOLERANCE 2 // Mapping of All of the distance sensor angles uint16_t AngleMap[] = {180, 135, 90, 45, 0}; // Array of distance sensor objects HCSR04* DistanceSensors[] = {new HCSR04(23, 22), new HCSR04(29, 28), new HCSR04(35, 34), new HCSR04(41, 40), new HCSR04(47, 46)}; uint16_t Distances[NUM_DISTANCE_SENSORS]; uint16_t Distances_Previous[NUM_DISTANCE_SENSORS]; L9110 motors(9, 8, 3, 2); void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); // Initialize all distances to 0 for (uint8_t i = 0; i < NUM_DISTANCE_SENSORS; i++) { Distances[i] = 0; Distances_Previous[i] = 0; } } void loop() { updateSensors(); // If there's a wall ahead if (Distances[DEG_90] < 10) { uint8_t minDir; Serial.println("Case 1"); // Reverse slightly motors.backward(FULL_SPEED); delay(100); // Turn left until the wall is on the right do { updateSensors(); minDir = getClosestWall(); motors.turnLeft(FULL_SPEED); delay(100); } while ((Distances[DEG_90] < 10) && (minDir != DEG_0)); } // If the front right sensor is closer to the wall than the right sensor, the robot is angled toward the wall else if ((Distances[DEG_45] <= Distances[DEG_0]) && (Distances[DEG_0] < (TARGET_DISTANCE + TOLERANCE))) { Serial.println("Case 2"); // Turn left to straighten out motors.turnLeft(FULL_SPEED); delay(100); } // If the robot is too close to the wall and isn't getting farther else if ((checkWallTolerance(Distances[DEG_0]) == –1) && (Distances[DEG_0] <= Distances_Previous[DEG_0])) { Serial.println("Case 3"); motors.turnLeft(FULL_SPEED); delay(100); motors.forward(FULL_SPEED); delay(100); } // If the robot is too far from the wall and isn't getting closer else if ((checkWallTolerance(Distances[DEG_0]) == 1) && (Distances[DEG_0] >= Distances_Previous[DEG_0])) { Serial.println("Case 4"); motors.turnRight(FULL_SPEED); delay(100); motors.forward(FULL_SPEED); delay(100); } // Otherwise keep going straight else { motors.forward(FULL_SPEED); delay(100); } } // A function to retrieve the distance from all sensors void updateSensors() { for (uint8_t i = 0; i < NUM_DISTANCE_SENSORS; i++) { Distances_Previous[i] = Distances[i]; Distances[i] = DistanceSensors[i]->getDistance(CM, 5); Serial.print(AngleMap[i]); Serial.print(":"); Serial.println(Distances[i]); delay(1); } } // Retrieve the angle of the closest wall uint8_t getClosestWall() { uint8_t tempMin = 255; uint16_t tempDist = 500; for (uint8_t i = 0; i < NUM_DISTANCE_SENSORS; i++) { if (min(tempDist, Distances[i]) == Distances[i]) { tempDist = Distances[i]; tempMin = i; } } return tempMin; } // Check if the robot is within the desired distance from the wall int8_t checkWallTolerance(uint16_t measurement) { if (measurement < (TARGET_DISTANCE – TOLERANCE)) { return –1; } else if (measurement > (TARGET_DISTANCE + TOLERANCE)) { return 1; } else { return 0; } }

view raw
wallFollowing.ino
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### Conclusion

There are still plenty of problems that I need to tackle for the robot to be able to successfully navigate my apartment.  I tested it in a very controlled environment and the algorithm I’m currently using isn’t robust enough to handle oddly shaped rooms or obstacles.  It also still tends to get stuck butting against the wall and completely ignores exterior corners.

Some of the obstacle and navigation problems will hopefully be remedied by adding bump sensors to the robot.  The sonar coverage of the area around the robot is sparser than I originally thought and the 2cm blindspot around the robot is causing some problems.  The more advanced navigation will also be helped by improving my algorithm to build a map of the room in the robot’s memory in addition to adding encoders for more precise position tracking.